Quotes of the week: Einstein revisited (again);  Atlantic Geological Predictions;  How the brain handles echoes.

According to the findings of physicists from Goethe University Frankfurt, a Gravstar could look like a Matryoshka doll. Credit: Daniel Jampolski and Luciano Rizzola

Einstein’s inexhaustible field equations just keep predicting weirder stellar objects, and the latest one is a doozy — so strap on your helmet, which has another helmet inside, which has another helmet inside. The headgear is based on a strange solution to the field equation described below, as well as an interesting neurological study involving human speech and predictions about the Atlantic Ocean in the next 20-million years.

Sample common

We all want to find soft-tissue dinosaur remains. Like, if losing the permafrost is absolutely necessary to benefit the fossil fuel industry, then at least we should get a whole frozen triceratops out of it, right? In 1931, diggers in the Italian Alps discovered the fossilized imprint of a Tridentinosaurus archaic. Deep within its body contours is material that has long been interpreted as fossilized remains of skin.

But researchers from the University of Cork recently conducted it. First detailed analysis Of fossils and disappointing, wet blankets concluded that the black material is a paint coating. In the past it was common practice to use varnish or lacquer to preserve fossilized specimens. However, analysis also revealed osteoderms, small bony scales, on the specimen’s back.

Object extraordinary

In 1916, German physicist Karl Schwarzschild proposed a solution to Einstein’s equation. So outrageous that Albert Einstein locked his doors and called the police: that a black hole had such a gravitationally dense singularity that it punched right through space-time like Cole Edman. . The field of physics erupted in disbelief. Einstein tried to use his equations to prove black holes were impossible.

But eventually, things calmed down, and physicists turned their attention to designing bigger bombs and wearing wide-brimmed hats. In 2001, physicists Pavel Mazur and Emil Mottola published another solution to Einstein’s equations that proposed a new object: gravitational condensate stars, or gravity stars.

As Gravastars are heavy And use similar gravity; However, they have no event horizon or homogeneity. The interior of a Gravistar consists of extraneous energy that exerts negative pressure against the gravitational forces that compress the object, and its surface is a vanishingly thin skin of normal matter.

Now, two physicists at Goethe University Frankfurt have proposed another solution to the field equation that A gravastar within another gravastar-They call it “Nystar” and say it’s like a Russian matryoshka doll. Their solution allows for a series of nested gravity stars since each successive gravity star is in self-gravitational equilibrium.

The authors write, “Although these ultracompact objects are admittedly very exotic, some of the solutions found provide an interesting alternative to a black hole with a singularity-free origin, a complete matter interior, a time surface of similar matter, and a compactness C→(1/2)

Mentally hungry

What will you be doing 20 million years from now? If you’re not afraid of all the earthquakes along the east coast, it might be possible to get to the Atlantic coast by then. Using computer modeling, researchers at the University of Lisbon predict that the subduction zone beneath the Strait of Gibraltar will eventually collapse. Develop in the Atlantic subduction system. Like the “Ring of Fire” around the Pacific Ocean.

Their model does not rely on the creation of new subsystems, which need to be broken down. -It’s very difficult to break them without, I don’t know, breaking them with a large asteroid — but instead the transition of the Strait of Gibraltar subduction zone is within the Atlantic Ocean. And then, geologically speaking, the Atlantic Ocean will “shut down” and begin to die, as in the Mediterranean gasping process.

In particular, this study, which relies on supercomputer processing, would have been impossible a handful of years ago. Gibraltar It has been dormant for about 1 million years, but when it wakes up, according to the model, it will migrate and eat breakfast (oceanic lithosphere), the process of recycling crust beneath the eastern Atlantic Ocean into Earth’s mantle. Is.

The echoes faded.

Humans are very good at distinguishing speech from its own echoes in environments like canyons and parking garages, even though these echoes distort the sound of the original speech. And if you want to train an AI system to separate speech from its own echoes, you learn from the master: the goofy human brain. Zhejiang University researchers have a the study Using magnetoencephalography to record human neural activity while study volunteers listened to a story with and without resonance.

They compared these neural signals with computational models that either adapt the brain to the echoes or separate the echoes from actual speech. Simulations of neural adaptation did not fully capture the observed brain responses. However, the simulation of speech/echo separation closely matched the brain activity of study participants.

The results suggest that “auditory stream segregation” accounts for human abilities such as singling out the words of a specific speaker in a noisy environment such as a restaurant, as well as separate speech in a reverberant space.

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Reference: Quotes of the Week: Einstein Revisited Atlantic Geological Predictions; How the brain handles echoes (2024, February 17) Retrieved February 17, 2024, from https://phys.org/news/2024-02-saturday-citations-einstein-revisited-atlantic.html

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